The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; VII. Apocrypha, (from Greek apokryptein, “to hide away”), in biblical literature, works outside an accepted canon of scripture. If you mean what protestants refer to as the apocrypha, meaning those books removed from protestant bibles, they are fully part of the canon of Christianity and always have been. The word Apocrypha comes from the Greek word, meaning “hidden” or “concealed”. Apocrypha. translation, II, iii), where much literature is specified. The Jews wrote numerous other works that are not included in any Christian canon. The Protevangelium of James, for example, tells the story of Mary's birth, childhood, and eventual marriage to Joseph (a widower with children), culminating in a detailed account of the birth of Jesus (in a cave) and a strong affirmation of Mary's virginity. The Apocrypha consists of a set of books written between approximately 400 B.C. Nothing in the English language can be compared with the works edited by Kautzsch and Hennecke in either scholarship or usefulness. Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under CANON. 2 Esdras. The nation of Israel treated the Apocrypha / Deuterocanonical books with respect, but never accepted them as true books of the Hebrew Bible. Although the literature is too vast and varied to summarize here, many Pseudepigrapha contain visionary journeys through heaven (or a series of heavens) and hell, an increased interest in angels and demons, speculations on the origins of sin and the nature of the final judgment, various expectations of a Messiah, predictions of the end of time, and ethical exhortations. This Apocrypha translation in paperback is based on the original 1611 King James Version with all names restored to its original Hebrew. So that the conception of esoteric literature existed among the Jews in the 1st century of our era, and probably still earlier. (A similar English work to that edited by Kautzsch is now passing through the (Oxford) press, Dr. R. H. Charles being the editor, the writer of this article being one of the contributors.). (2) In classical and Hellenistic Greek the adjective apokruphos denotes "hidden" of visible objects, or obscure, hard to understand (of certain kinds of knowledge). Some Christian churches include some or all of the same texts within the body of their version of the Old Testament. According to Bruce Metzger, the word deuterocanonical was a term coined in 1566 by the Roman Catholic Sixtus of Sienna. Meaning: spurious, writings that are not considered genuine and therefore not part of authentic Scripture; not approved. Christianity itself has nothing corresponding to the idea of a doctrine for the initiated or a literature for a select few. In this sense Gregory of Nyssa (died 395; De Ordin., II, 44) and Epiphanius (died 403; Haeres, 51 3) speak of the Apocalypse of John as "apocryphal.". The Greek Bible--the Septuagint--is that of the Jews in Egypt and of those found in other Greek-speaking countries. By Yehuda Shurpin. Protestants refer to these books as apocrypha (meaning spurious, hidden, obscure), but Catholics reject that phrasing. Notwithstanding the doubt which Ryle (Canon of the Old Testament, 156) casts on the matter, all the evidence goes to show that the Septuagint and therefore the other great Greek versions included the Apocrypha from the first onward. (1) "Esoteric" Literature (Clement of Alexandria, etc.). Our English versions are made from a Latin original EZRA or the \ESDRAS, THE SECOND (FOURTH) BOOK OF; APOCALYPTIC ESDRAS\. 1 Esdras is virtually identical to Ezra in the Hebrew bible (i.e. Land (of Israel) Last Day (s), Latter Days, Last Times. Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology /. The Pythagoreans recognized and observed these two kinds of doctrines and duties and there is good reason for believing that they created a corresponding double literature though unfortunately no explicit examples of such literature have come down to us. There are several modern translations, far the best being that in German edited by E. Kautzsch, containing Introductions, general and special, and valuable notes by the best German scholars. Perhaps if the Greek original of this book had been preserved the word "apocrypha" would have been found as an epithetic attached to the 70 books. He was followed in this by Rufinus (died circa 410), in turns Jerome's friend and adversary, as he had been anticipated by Irenaeus. Greek: apo—“sprung from, descended from” + kryptein—“hidden; obscure, hard to understand,” thus of hidden or unknown authorship I n modern times, some have deceptively referred to these many books as “the Lost Books of the Bible.” The western church as a whole departed from Jerome's theory by including the antilegomena of both Testaments among the canonical writings: but the general custom of western Christians about this time was to make apocryphal mean non-canonical. Then it came to signify what is obscure, recondite, hard to understand (Xen. This question does not allow of so decided an answer, and as matter of fact it has been answered in different ways. Baruch; IX. The primary meaning of apocrypha , "hidden, secret," seems, toward the close of the second century to have been associated with the signification "spurious," and ultimately to have settled down into the latter. This version, which became known as the Vulgate, eventually became the official version of the Roman Church and became the Bible used in the Western Church for the next thousand years. A detailed Hebraic understanding, and breakdown is also given concerning the Father YAHOWAH & His Son YAHOSHUA’s names. But it is quite certain that by far the greater part of the Apocrypha is of later date than the Old Testament; it is therefore of the utmost importance as reflecting the state of the Jews and the character of their intellectual and religious life at the various periods represented. The Apocrypha include the following books and parts of books: First and Second Esdras Esdras [Gr. Value of apocrypha in Gematria is 663, Online Gematria Calculator with same phrases values search and words. Apocrypha is a loanword borrowed from Latin, from Greek Apokrupha, neuter pl. On the other hand Gregory of Nyssa and Epiphanius, both writing in the 4th century, use the word "apocrypha" in the old sense of apocalyptic, i.e. This change of attitude toward noncanonical writings took place under the influence of two principles: (1) that no writer could be inspired who lived subsequent to the apostolic age; (2) that no writing could be recognized as canonical unless it was accepted as such by the churches in general (in Latin the principle was--quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus). It is significant of the original character of the religion of Israel that no one has been able to point to a Hebrew word corresponding to esoteric (see below). See Table at Bible. The Jews in the early Christian centuries had really two Bibles: (1) There was the Hebrew Bible which does not include the Apocrypha, and which circulated in Palestine and Babylon; (2) there was the Greek version (Septuagint) used by Greek-speaking Jews everywhere. Judith; V. The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI. The Apocrypha . Already Wycliffe had declared that " whatever book is in the Old Testament besides these twentyfive (Hebrew) shall be set among the apocrypha, that is, without authority or belief." (see The Century Bible, Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther, 294f). The 12 Testaments of the Patriarchs (part of the Dead Sea Scrolls Hebrew Canon) are also included and translated from their original Hebrew text. Judith; V. The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI. Second Esdras, purportedly composed by Ezra, was written in response to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in a.d. 70. Bible Dictionaries - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Apocrypha, Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology, Bible Dictionaries - Easton's Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha, Bible Dictionaries - Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary - Apocrypha, Bible Dictionaries - Smith's Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha, Encyclopedias - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Apocrypha, California - Do Not Sell My Personal Information. They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from the LXX. of apokruphos, secret, hidden, from apokruptein, to hide away : apo-, apo- + kruptein, kruph-, to hide.] The latter present, in contrast to the relatively reserved statements in the New Testament, vivid descriptions of hell, where sinners are punished in accordance with their sins: blasphemers, for example, hang by their tongues over a blazing fire. The text is believed to be the work of seventy Jewish scholars that assembled in Alexandria, Egypt around 285 to 247 B.C. Rom. 1 Maccabee; XIV. Of the Old Testament lists given above numbers 1, 2, 4, 5 are extant wholly or in part. The term "apocrypha" comes from the Greek word meaning "hidden" or "secret." The bringing together of the writings of the Apocrypha into an apart collection was due in a large measure to Jerome, who separated many of the apocryphal additions from their original context because he suspected their genuineness. What they did produce was explanatory of what had been written and practical. Many of them read into the canonical writings mystic meanings, and embodied those meanings in special books, these last becoming esoteric literature in themselves: and as in the case of apocalyptic writings, this esoteric literature was more revered than the Bible itself. The canon of the Church included the books which are contained in the Greek Bible but not in the Hebrew (see the list below, § III. The contents of the books themselves show that they were no part of Scripture. The remaining 70 were to be kept for the exclusive use of the "wise among the people": i.e. Many Hebrew Israelites also rely on, or at least use BlueletterBible.com as a source, often calling on this website when explaining the meaning a Greek or Hebrew word. But this and kindred literature was and is still held to be caviare to outsiders. may be as late as that. An apocryphal story is probably not true although it is often told and believed by some people…. But almost certainly the noun biblia is understood, so that the real implication of the word is "apocryphal books" or "writings." [Middle English apocripha, not authentic, from Late Latin Apocrypha, the Apocrypha, from Greek Apokrupha, neuter pl. des neutest. If this view is the correct one it follows that the distinction of canonical and non-canonical books originated among the Jews, and that the Fathers in using the word apocrypha in this sense were simply copying the Jews substituting Greek words for the Hebrew equivalent. The New Testament Apocrypha is an amorphous collection of writings that are for the most part either about, or pseudonymously attributed to, New Testament figures. The term has several meanings, which are important to distinguish. The Roman Catholic canon places the Prayer of Manasseh, 1 Esdras, and 2 Esdras in an appendix without implying canonicity. But a general statement regarding the extreme limits between which all the books were completed may safely be made. In a similar way there grew up among the Jews side by side with the written law an oral law containing the teaching of the rabbis and regarded as more sacred and authoritative than the writings they profess to expound. 2, 1892. and the time of Christ. ), (2) Change to "Religious" Books (Origen, etc. It is commonly used to refer to ancient, mostly Second Temple –era works that are “outside” of the Jewish Bible. Yet the fact that these books are mentioned at all show that they were more highly esteemed than heathen and than even heretical Christian writings. Matt 7:12 ). They are not printed in Protestant versions of the Bible RC Church another name for the Pseudepigrapha Also spelled Chilkiya. In English besides the Revised Version (British and American) there is the useful Variorum edition, edited by C. J. The Apocrypha . In critical works of the present day it is customary to speak of the collection of writings now in view as "the Old Testament Apocrypha," because many of the books at least were written in Hebrew, the language of the Old Testament, and because all of them are much more closely allied to the Old Testament than to the New Testament. Ezra], name of several books found in the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Greek: apo—“sprung from, descended from” + kryptein—“hidden; obscure, hard to understand,” thus of hidden or unknown authorship I n modern times, some have deceptively referred to these many books as “the Lost Books of the Bible.” and in Latin works beginning with Jerome, Greek apokruphos meant non-canonical, implying inferiority in subject-matter to the books in the canon. First Maccabees, the longest and most detailed account, is an especially important historical source for the revolt. The stories, themes, and language of these books (especially Judith, Tobit, Susanna, the Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon) have been utilized by literary figures such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Longfellow, composers such as Charles Wesley, Handel, and Rubinstein, and artists such as Michaelangelo, Rembrandt, and van Dyck. In addition, the Apocalypse of Paul purports to give a detailed narration of Paul's rapture to the third heaven (cf. Old Testament Apocrypha ._The collection of books to which this term is popularly applied includes the following (the order given is that in which they stand in the English version); I. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante. list which is almost certainly that of the Roman synod of 382 under Damasus, bishop of Rome, 366 to 384. But there are decisive reasons for rejecting this view. Irenaeus (died 202) in opposition to Clement of Alexandria denies that esoteric writings have any claims to credence or even respect, and he uses the Greek word for "apocryphal" to describe all Jewish and Christian canons. Gradually, the term "apocrypha" took on a disparaging connotation, since the orthodoxy of these hidden books was often questionable. 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