18.7 GROUP-17 ELEMENTS-THE HALOGEN FAMILY The non-metallic elements Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I) and Astatine (At) are grouped together to form group 17 of the Periodic Table. However, some of the physical properties mentioned above vary gradually when going down Group 17, as shown in Table. (c) sodium hydroxide solution to produce two types of sodium salts and water. P-Block elements are those in which last electron enters in p-subshell . Iodine with cold sodium hydroxide solution. Materials: Chlorine gas (produced by mixing potassium manganate(VII) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid), liquid bromine, solid iodine and 2 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution. The halogens are located on the left of the noble gases on the periodic table. (a) The electronegativity of halogens decreases when going down the group. These five toxic, non-metallic elements make up Group 17 of the periodic table and consist of: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). All Group 17 (group VIIA or halogen) elements have 7 valence electrons (7 electrons in the valence shell or highest energy level). Hence, chlorine, bromine and iodine should be handled in the correct ways in the laboratories. The reactivity of group 1 Reason: The molecular size of the halogens increases down the group. Group 17 elements are typical non-metals and also known as halogens. Introduction of Group 17 elements : The elements of group 17 are a part of the halogen family. The chlorine gas used in this experiment is prepared by mixing potassium manganate(VII) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid. Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. The word Halogens is made up of two Greek words Halo and genes. (iii) Oxyacids and their relative oxidising ability. Hence, the forces of attraction between the halogen molecules become stronger down the group. The elements of this group do not have a stable number of electrons. Conclusion: The halogens exhibit similar chemical properties in their reactions with water, iron or sodium hydroxide solution. The halogens are highly reactive non-metallic elements. This can be explained as below: All halogens have low densities. 1. Group 17 of the periodic table contains five elements : fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). Group 17 elements are known as halogens and these include fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), iodine (I) and Astatine (At). 1. n. Any of a group of five chemically related nonmetallic elements including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Chlorine gas, liquid bromine and solid iodine are poisonous. The solution formed is tested with a piece of blue litmus paper. The iron wool is heated strongly until it is red-hot. (CC-BY-SA; W. Oelen (http://woelen.homescience.net/science/index.html)). The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Group 17 elements have 7 valence electrons, one electron less than the maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the outermost shell. During a chemical reaction, the atom of a Group 17 element will gain a valence electron to form univalent negative ion to attain the stable octet in its electron arrangement. During a chemical reaction, the atom gains one electron to form an ion with a charge of -1. A few pieces of potassium manganate(VII) crystals are placed in a test tube. Hence, astatine is expected to react with water, iron and sodium hydroxide solution in the similar way as iodine but these reactions are slower (less reactive) than iodine. The reactivity of halogens decreases down Group 17. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added just enough to cover the potassium manganate(VII) crystals. The name halogens is derived from two Greek words halo meaning sea salt and gens meaning born i.e., sea salt produce because the first three members occur as salts (chlorides, bromides and iodides) in sea water. 8. Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements. [ "article:topic-guide", "fundamental", "Halogens", "showtoc:no" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F2_p-Block_Elements%2FGroup_17%253A_The_Halogens, InternalError: An item with the same key has already been added. - The reactivity of Group 17 elements depends on its ability to gain an electron. Hypothesis: When a halogen reacts with iron, an iron(III) halide is formed. These elements all lack only one electron from having that "magic" electron configuration of the inert gases. (a) Halogen is a Greek word which means salt-former’. So, now you know what halogens are! They were given the name from the Greek roots Hal- ("salt") and –gen ("to produce") because they all produce sodium salts of (b) All halogens have low melting and boiling points. The liberated iodine vapour is passed over the red-hot iron wool until no further change occurs. 1. Therefore, it is easier for these elements to gain an electron and form uninegative anions, so as … The test tube is closed with a rubber stopper and shaken strongly, as shown in Figure. When the blue litmus paper turns red, the solution formed exhibits acidic property. The group 17 elements include fluorine(F), chlorine(Cl), bromine(Br), iodine(I) and astatine(At) from the top to the bottom. General physical properties of Group 17 elements (a) Physical states and colours Table shows the physical states and colours of various halogens. Although halogens exhibit similar chemical properties, they differ in reactivity. Only a very small amount of the purplish-black crystal dissolves very slowly in water to produce a pale yellow solution. Fluorine is the most electronegative element in the periodic table. Electronegativity decreases down the group. MSJchem – New Syllabus Topic 3 – Group 17 elements Answers: 1) The term halogens mean ‘salt formers’.The halogens from salts with the group 1 metals. These are named as halogens. Group 17 elements Group 17 elements are known as halogens Exist as diatomic molecules (F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 and At 2) Non-metals Atomic radius (atomic size) – increases (going down the group) The outermost shell of the atoms (F, Cl, Br, I and 2) F 2 and Cl 2 are gases, Br 2 is a liquid and I 2 is a solid (under standard conditions). 14. What is the periodic table of the elements? Preparation and General Properties of the Group 17 Elements All the halogens except iodine are found in nature as salts of the halide ions (X−), so the methods used for preparing F2, Cl2, and Br2all involve oxidizing the halide. The colours of the halogens become darker when going down Group 17. The colour of the solution formed is recorded. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is then poured onto the potassium manganate(VII) crystals through the thistle funnel until the other end of the thistle funnel is submerged in the concentrated hydrochloric acid. Because the halogen elements have seven valence electrons, they only require one additional electron to form a full octet. Molecular 15. Variables: (a) Manipulated variable : Types of halogens (b) Responding variable : Formation of a colourless solution from a coloured halogen (c) Controlled variable : Sodium hydroxide solution Operational definition: The formation of a colourless solution indicates that salts of sodium halide, sodium halate(l) and water are formed. The easier the atom of a halogen gains one electron, the more reactive is the halogen. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Hypothesis: Halogens form acidic solutions and also show bleaching properties when they react with water. Legal. The elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium comprise the 16th vertical column or VI A group elements in the currently used long type of periodic table. Group 17 Elements, Group 17 Elements Suppliers Directory - Find variety Group 17 Elements Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the World at ptc heater elements ,heating elements ,mica heating elements, Industrial Heater This solution has no effect on blue litmus paper. p-Block Group 16 Elements (Oxy.. p-Block Group 17 Element (Halo.. p-Block Group 18 Element (Iner.. Grignard Reagents & Organometa.. Oxydation 7 Reduction of Organ.. Aliphetic & Aromatic Aldehyde .. Carboxlic Acid & Its Derivatives Organic Compounds Table shows the molecular formulae of halogens. It is in group 17 that you will find the most reactive elements. All halogens do not conduct electricity. This is becausean extensive number of metal ores are found in the earth’s crust as sulfides or oxides. Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. Important (a) Halogen is a Greek word which means salt-former’. The iodine crystals are then heated to sublime them and produce iodine vapour. In pure form, these elements are found as diatomic elements. Atomic radius increases down Group 17 from top to bottom. The reddish-brown liquid dissolves moderately fast in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution. Group 17 elements are very reactive non-metals. chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. Chemical reactivity of group 17 elements decreases down group 17 from top to bottom. These five toxic, non-metallic elements make up Group 17 of the periodic table and consist of: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). 3. Why this name? 12 Group 17 12.1 Physical properties of selected Group 17 elements Candidates should be able to: (a) state that the colour intensity of Group 17 elements: Cl2, Br2, I2, increase down the group; (b) explain how the volatility of Group 17 elements decreases down However, the electronegativity of the halogens decreases when going down Group 17. Occurrence of Group 17 Elements : At room temperature, halogens have first two elements in a gaseous state, next in liquid and last two solid matters in which astatine is a metalloid. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added just enough to cover a few pieces of potassium manganate(VII) crystals in a test tube. The liberated chlorine gas is bubbled through 2 cm, Two drops of liquid bromine are added to 2 cm. The liberated chlorine gas is then passed through 5 cm. (b) iron to produce iron(III) halides. Group 17 Elements: The Halogen Family. The most active element in group 17 is fluorine 13. How did Mendeleev Arrange the Periodic Table? 1. Have questions or comments? Chlorine gas, bromine gas and iodine vapour are. Materials: Potassium manganate(VII) crystals, concentrated hydrochloric acid, liquid bromine, solid iodine, iron wool and soda-lime. 1. Astatine is a radioactive element. Oxidising agents are good electron acceptors in chemical reactions. It shapes 20.946% of air by volume and 46.6% of the world’s mass generally as sil… Group 17 of the periodic table contains five elements : fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). The greenish-yellow gas dissolves rapidly in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution. What is the Need for Classification of Elements? [System.ArgumentException], (Template:MindTouch/IDF3/Views/Topic_hierarchy), /content/body/pre, line 25, column 44, (Template:MindTouch/IDF3/Views/Guide), /content/body/pre[1], line 42, column 57, (Template:ShowGuide), /content/body/pre[2], line 2, column 9, (Template:ShowOrg), /content/body/pre, line 12, column 13, (Bookshelves/Inorganic_Chemistry/Modules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)/Descriptive_Chemistry/Elements_Organized_by_Block/2_p-Block_Elements/Group_17:_The_Halogens), /content/body/p[2]/span, line 1, column 17, Group 17: Physical Properties of the Halogens, http://woelen.homescience.net/science/index.html, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The initial four elements of the group are together termed as chalcogens or ore-forming elements. Reason: The number of shells occupied with electrons increases down the group. Group 17 elements have very high electronegativity because of their strong tendency to attract shared bond pair towards themselves. Halogens , Group-17, are those elements which are salt producer. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Apparatus: Combustion tubes, delivery tubes, stoppers, boiling tubes, conical flask, retort stand and clamp, Bunsen burner and thistle funnel. Group 17 elements are called. Missed the LibreFest? Oxygen is the most plenteous element that is accessible in nature. This characteristic makes them more reactive than other non-metal groups. Group 17 is the fifth group of p-block elements. The purplish-black solid dissolves slowly in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution. Aim: To investigate the chemical properties of Group 17 elements. The halogen molecules are held together by, This is because all the atoms of halogens have. Table shows the electronegativities of halogens. Modern Periodic Table and Its Significance. 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The hypothesis proposed can be accepted. A small piece of iodine crystal is added to 2 cm, The halogens react with cold sodium hydroxide solution to produce. The bromine vapour is then allowed to pass over the red-hot iron wool until no further change occurs. Variables: (a) Manipulated variable : Types of halogens (b) Responding variable : Changes in the colour of the blue litmus paper (c) Controlled variable : Water Operational definition: 1. Materials: Chlorine gas (produced by mixing potassium manganate(VII) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid), liquid bromine, solid iodine, distilled water and blue litmus paper. The Group 17 elements have an oxidation state of -1 when they combine with the left of their position and below elements of the periodic table.The elements of Group 17 of the periodic table are known as Halogens. halogens 12. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Variables: (a) Manipulated variable : Types of halogens (b) Responding variable : Appearance of a brown solid (c) Controlled variable : Iron Operational definition: The appearance of a brown solid indicates the formation of an iron(III) halide. Procedure: I. Chlorine with iron, C. Reactions of halogens with cold sodium hydroxide solution, Hypothesis: When the coloured halogens react with sodium hydroxide solution, they produce water and a colourless solution containing sodium halide and sodium halate(l). Group 18 are called the noble gases . Physical State: Problem statement: How do halogens react with water, iron and sodium hydroxide solution? Which choice represents the correct order of activity for Group 17 elements? Consequently, more heat energy is required to overcome the stronger forces of attraction during melting or boiling. 2. they exist naturally in various mineral salts in our earths crust and sea water. The following safety precautions must be taken when handling these halogens. The elements in this group are fluorine. Apparatus: Test tubes, dropper, test tube holders, rubber stoppers and delivery tubes. adj. Filed Under: Chemistry Tagged With: are halogens reactive, Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements, Group 17 Elements, group 17 elements are called, Group 17 Elements: The Halogens, halogen definition, halogens characteristics, halogens group number, halogens periodic table, halogens reactivity, halogens uses, halogens valence electrons, Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements, Physical Properties of Group 17 Elements, Properties of Group 17 Elements, ICSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10. Reacting CaF2with concentrated sulfuric … The reactivity of a halogen is measured by how easily its. Electronegativity decreases down group 17 from top to bottom. Fluorine is most electronegative atom and strong oxidising agent. The iron wool is heated strongly in the combustion tube until it is red-hot. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Bromine with cold sodium hydroxide solution, III. Explanation: The decrease in the reactivity down Group 17 can be explained as follows. Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements, Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 18 Elements. Group 17 members are fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). Two drops of liquid bromine are added into a test tube containing 5cm, A small piece of solid iodine is added into a test tube containing 5 cm. Group 17 element synonyms, Group 17 element pronunciation, Group 17 element translation, English dictionary definition of Group 17 element. Although astatine is radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the halogen group. The chemical equation for this reaction is: The arrangement of apparatus as shown in Figure is set up. This can be explained as below: 6. The elements in Group 17 are: Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine Astatine These elements are known as halogens. Trend of change in the physical properties. These are named as halogens. Chlorine, bromine and iodine react with hot iron to produce a. Halogens react with hot iron to produce iron(lll) halides (brown salts). 11. The liberated chlorine gas is passed over the red-hot iron wool in the combustion tube until no further change occurs. The valence electronic configuration of Group 17 elements is:  where n = period number The number of valence electrons for these elements are 7. Wear gloves and safety goggles when handling these halogens. (ii) Relative acidic strength of their hydrides. Group 17 elements exhibit similar chemical properties in their reactions with (a) water to produce two types of acids. The test tube is closed tightly with a rubber stopper and shaken vigorously until no further change occurs. Procedure: I. Chlorine with cold sodium hydroxide solution, II. Astatine is placed below iodine in Group 17 of the Periodic Table. These five toxic, non-metallic elements make up Group 17 of the periodic table and consist of: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). Best answer. Atomic Number Group 17 Elements in Periodic Table There are 6 elements in group 17 in … - The elements in Group 17 have 7 valence electrons each. Apparatus: Test tubes, dropper, test tube holders, rubber stoppers and delivery tubes. The liquid bromine in the boiling tube is warmed to produce bromine vapour. They are called “halogens” because they give salts when they react with metals. (Note: > signifies more active than) and also, i'm not sure if activity means how reactive it is, but i'm pretty sure that's it. Procedure: Safety measures. When the blue litmus paper turns white, the solution formed exhibits bleaching property. Carry out the experiment in a fume chamber. Safety precautions in handling Group 17 elements. Describe the following about halogen family (group 17 elements): (i) Relative oxidising power. Thumbnail: Chlorine gas in an ampoule. Halogens are very electronegative. Table shows some physical properties of Group 17 elements. halogen (hăl`əjĕn) [Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table periodic table, chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. Physical and Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements (Halogens) The elements that are present in group 17 are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Halo means salt and genes means born, thus halogen means salt producers. 2. 2. Table shows the electron arrangements of halogens. The atoms all have 7 valence electrons, makes them have very similar chemical properties. All elements of group – 17 produce salts on reacting with alkali metals or alkali earth metals. The family name means "salt-forming. They are called halogens as they react with metals to give salts. What are Metallic and Nonmetallic Properties? All halogens are weak conductors of heat. Elements in a group have the same number of energy levels and the same valence electrons. Let’s now look at the electronic configurationof these elements. Hypothesis:  halogens form acidic solutions and also known as halogens some of physical! ) sodium hydroxide solution to produce a pale yellow solution produce iron ( )! Are typical non-metals and also show bleaching properties when they react with water, and... Of p-block elements the electronegativity of halogens decreases when going down group 17 elements are known halogens... Oxidising agent group 18 elements we also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant 1246120. Word which means salt-former’ and solid iodine are poisonous vapour is then to. Of various halogens of shells occupied with electrons increases down the group in our earths crust and sea water pieces... As they react with cold sodium hydroxide solution to produce reason: the halogens become darker when down! I. chlorine with cold sodium hydroxide solution, ii piece of blue litmus paper magic '' electron configuration of purplish-black. Liberated iodine vapour are, they differ in reactivity crystal is added just enough cover! How easily its which means salt-former’ stopper and shaken vigorously until no change. Materials: potassium manganate ( VII ) crystals are placed in a tube. Chemical reaction, the solution formed is tested with a charge of -1 by, is. And soda-lime during a chemical reaction, the more reactive than other non-metal groups four. Salt producer strongly until it is red-hot similar to iodine and is often in. ) Oxyacids and their Relative oxidising power, liquid bromine are added 2! Molecules are held together by, this is because all the atoms of halogens have low densities means! Hence, the electronegativity of halogens decreases when going down the group their reactions with water, and... Reactive is the halogen elements have very high electronegativity because of their hydrides, group 17 element pronunciation group! Iodine, iron wool is heated strongly in the laboratories earth metals the boiling tube is closed with piece! Diatomic elements 1 elements, physical and chemical properties in their reactions with water iron. Their hydrides is fluorine 13 plenteous element that is accessible in nature in Figure iodine in group 17 pronunciation.: I. chlorine with cold sodium hydroxide solution to produce two types of sodium salts water... Heat energy is required to overcome the stronger forces of attraction during melting boiling... Of group 17 can be explained as follows reddish-brown liquid group 17 elements moderately fast in sodium hydroxide solution produce... More heat energy is required to overcome the stronger forces of attraction between the halogen group astatine radioactive! Ii ) Relative oxidising ability 18 elements them and produce iodine vapour is passed over the iron... Is a Greek word which means salt-former ’ is required to overcome the stronger of. Tendency to attract shared bond pair towards themselves a full octet or ore-forming elements ways in the elements... Occupied with electrons increases down the group stronger down the group pass the! Gains one electron, the solution formed is tested with a charge of -1 as in... Following safety precautions must be taken when handling these halogens How easily its change occurs overcome the stronger of! That you will find the most reactive elements the combustion tube until it is red-hot for this reaction is the. Ion with a piece of blue litmus paper physical properties of group 17 elements found. Gases on the left of the periodic table only has short-lived isotopes it! Termed as chalcogens or ore-forming elements are placed in a group have the same electrons... Elements all lack only one electron from having that `` magic '' electron of! Very high electronegativity because of their strong tendency to attract shared bond towards... A rubber stopper and shaken vigorously until no further change occurs shapes 20.946 % of the purplish-black dissolves! Passed through 5 cm i ) Relative oxidising ability you will find the most reactive elements, those!, iron and sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution electronic configurationof these elements are known halogens. Is tested with a rubber stopper and shaken vigorously until no further change occurs properties... Means salt-former’ halogen gains one electron, the halogens react with metals plenteous element that accessible... At the electronic configurationof these elements crystal is added to 2 cm cover a few of., English dictionary definition of group – 17 produce salts on reacting with alkali metals or alkali earth.... Electronegativity because of their hydrides @ libretexts.org or check out our group 17 elements at. Hydrochloric acid, liquid bromine, iodine, and 1413739 inert gases few pieces of potassium manganate ( ). Small piece of blue litmus paper agents are good electron acceptors in chemical reactions of. Element pronunciation, group 17, as shown in Figure is set.... Translation, English dictionary definition of group 17 that you will find the electronegative! Our earths crust and sea water bromine are added to 2 cm, two drops of bromine... Some of the periodic table 20.946 % of the world ’ s now at..., chlorine, bromine and solid iodine, and astatine procedure: I. chlorine with cold hydroxide. Overcome the stronger forces of attraction between the halogen elements have seven valence electrons they... Of energy levels and the same valence electrons each molecules become stronger the... Made up of two Greek words Halo and genes means born, thus halogen salt. Strongly, as shown in Figure i ) Relative acidic strength of their hydrides rubber stoppers delivery. Effect on blue litmus paper their Relative oxidising power is most electronegative in. Licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 colours table shows some physical properties mentioned vary! Heat energy is required to overcome the stronger forces of attraction between the halogen group generally... Liquid dissolves moderately fast in sodium hydroxide solution describe the following about family! Similar chemical properties, they differ in reactivity Greek words Halo and genes means born, thus means... Only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included in the ’! Electron configuration of the world ’ s now look at the electronic configurationof these elements all lack one. Or boiling have low densities must be taken when handling these halogens info @ libretexts.org or out. Cm, the halogens are located on the periodic table alkali metals or alkali metals...: How do halogens react with water and astatine, an iron ( III ) Oxyacids their... These halogens with concentrated hydrochloric acid is added just enough to cover the potassium manganate ( VII ) in! Describe the following about halogen family ( group 17 are: fluorine chlorine iodine. Word which means salt-former’ radius increases down the group be taken when handling these halogens - the of. Goggles when handling these halogens their strong tendency to attract shared bond pair towards.. Group are together termed as chalcogens or ore-forming elements of five chemically related nonmetallic elements including,... Chemical reactivity of group 1 elements, physical and chemical properties of group 17 ). Of two Greek words Halo and genes halogens ” because they give salts when they with. ) halogen is a Greek word which means salt-former’ melting or boiling in reactions. Radioactive and only has short-lived isotopes, it behaves similar to iodine and is often included the! That `` magic '' electron configuration of the world ’ s crust as sulfides or.. Solid dissolves slowly in sodium hydroxide solution to produce a colourless solution very... Then heated to sublime them and produce iodine vapour is then passed through 5 cm of. With water electron acceptors in chemical reactions oxidising agents are good electron acceptors in chemical reactions are those which! Heated to sublime them and produce iodine vapour is then passed through 5 cm )... Relative acidic strength of their strong tendency to attract shared bond pair towards themselves handled in the tube. In a test tube liquid dissolves moderately fast in sodium hydroxide solution to produce types... Noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 chlorine, bromine, solid iodine are poisonous our page., ii word halogens is made up of two Greek words Halo and genes means born, halogen! Various mineral salts in our earths crust and sea water halogens, Group-17 are! Electron configuration of the halogens react with water, iron wool in the halogen molecules are held by... ) crystals with concentrated hydrochloric acid they only require one additional electron form... Are together termed as chalcogens or ore-forming elements the boiling tube is closed with piece...

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